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crown casino perth wiki The east coast states of New South Wales and Victoria are badly effected with hundreds of fires and states of emergencies issued.
The larger cities are safe to visit, however they are experiencing significant smoke pollution which limits outdoor activity significantly.
Information last updated Jan 2020 There is nowhere else quite likethe only country that has a whole continent to itself.
With an indigenous culture lasting over 60,000 years and truly global immigration from Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, the continent is famous for its natural wonders, wide open spaces, beaches, deserts, "the bush", and "the ".
However, it is also a highly urbanised, with cosmopolitan cities such as, and.
The coast of New South Wales is lined with beach-side communities; a little inland are the mountain ranges of the and mountains; further inland still are sweeping agricultural plains giving way to desert.
NT From the red deserts surrounding and up to the tropics of andthe Northern Territory is stunningly beautiful, and easier to access than you might think.
QLD Famous for its sunny warm weather, Queensland offers coastal exploration from the vibe of the to the tropics of the to the bustling city of.
It is also home to tropical rainforests of theand the island resorts of the Whitsundays.
Inland lies the ranges of the hinterland, and further on the vast expanses and beauty of outback Australia.
SA Renowned for the fine wines of thethe beauty of the and the outback and events and culture of the City of Churches.
TAS Separated from the mainland by Bass Strait, the mountainous state of Tasmania has the rugged beauty of Cradle Mountain in the west, the beaches of the east, and the wilderness of the south.
VIC Small, vibrant and with something for everyone, Victoria has dramatic surf beaches along the southwest and central coast, green rolling farmland and photogenic national parks.
Australia and Victoria's sporting, shopping, fashion and food capital is.
WA A vast state.
The south-west contains the state capital and major city of.
The wine growing and scenic destinations of and are towards the southern region.
In the far north are the tropics and the beach-side destination of.
Small townships, roadhouses, mining communities and national parks are scattered around the long distances between.
Islands is the most significant crown casino perth wiki of Australia and a state in its own right.
Flights from Perth and.
We'll share a dream and sing with one voice: I am, you are, we are Australian.
A G20 member, it has high living standards and quality of life.
It is a significant player in the economic and political spheres of the Pacific region.
Geography Red kangaroos in the Northern Territory The landmass of Australia is either the world's smallest continent, or the world's largest island; making up most of 's land area.
The nation of Australia includes the Australian mainland, and some smaller islands such as.
It is the world's sixth largest country, with a land area of 7,682,300 km² 2,966,152 square miles.
It is comparable in size to the 48 contiguous although it has less than one tenth the population, with the distances between cities and towns easy to underestimate.
Australia is bordered to the west by the Indian Ocean, to the south by the Southern Ocean, and to the east by the Pacific Ocean.
The Tasman Sea lies to the southeast, separating it fromwhile the Coral Sea lies to the northeast.
Australia is highly urbanised with most of the population heavily concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts.
Most of the inland areas of the country are semi-arid.
The most populous states are andbut the largest in terms of area is.
Large parts of Australia have been deforested to make way for agriculture but many native forest areas survive in extensive national parks and other undeveloped areas.
Long term environmental concerns in Australia include water management, salinity, pollution, threats to biodiversity from invasive species, and conserving coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
Climate As a large continent Australia has a wide variety of climates.
Most of the country receives more than 3,000 hours of sunshine a year.
Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while the south tends to sub-tropical and temperate.
Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid.
The daytime maximum temperatures in the tropical city of rarely drop below 30°C 86°F even in winter while night temperatures in winter usually hover around 15-20°C 59-68°F.
Australian winters tend to be milder than those at similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere and snow never falls in most parts of the country.
Temperatures in high altitude areas of some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter and sometimes even in the summer and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experience metres of winter snow.
Parts of have a temperature range more similar to northern and it is not unheard of for snow to fall in some mountainous regions of the state.
As Australia is in the southern hemisphere the winter is June—August while December—February is summer.
The winter is the dry season in the tropics and the summer is the wet.
In the southern parts of the country, the seasonal temperature variation is greater.
The rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year in the southern parts of the East Coast while in the rest of the south beyond thethe summers are dry with the bulk of the rainfall occurring in winter.
History See also:, Aboriginal people have been living in Australia for at least 65,000 years.
They arrived in successive waves from South and South-East.
With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and the Aboriginal tribes developed a variety of cultures, based on a close spiritual relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship.
For thousands of years Australian Aboriginal people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture, or in some will casino dinero real gratis sin deposito think a semi-sedentary culture, in association with a complex artistic and cultural life, including a very rich tradition of story and song.
The modern impression of Australian Aboriginal people is largely built around an image of the "desert people" who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet equivalent to the bushmen of the Kalaharibut many others lived in forested and well-watered regions.
Australia provided a comfortable living for the bulk of the Aboriginal people among the bountiful flora and fauna on the Australian see more - until the arrival of Europeans.
Although a lucrative market for shells and bĂŞche de mer sea cucumber had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries it was unknown to Europeans until the 1600s, when traders to Asia began to 'bump' into the North Western Coast.
Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained for them somewhat of a marker sign pointing north to the much richer and more lucrative East Indies modern Indonesia.
Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British.
Consequently, place names of bays, headlands and rivers around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, British, and Aboriginal languages.
In 1770, the expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at on 29 April 1770.
Cook continued northwards, and before leaving put ashore on Possession Island in the Torres Strait off Cape York on 22 August 1770.
Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had discovered for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales.
Given that Cook's discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although he had been preceded by more than 160 years.
Part of the former convict settlement in Tasmania.
The remains of the settlement form part of the '' entry on the.
Following the exploration source, the first British settlement in Australia was founded in 1788 at what is todayled by Captain Arthur Philip who became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales.
The process of colonisation led to conflict with Indigenous Australians as well as diseases to which the they had no immunity.
Their populations declined throughout much though not all of the land, and were displaced by the British settlers.
Originally comprising the eastern two-thirds of the continent, the colony of New South Wales was later split into several separate colonies.
The western third of the continent was not settled by Europeans until the British established a naval base inthen known as King George Sound in 1826.
The Swan River Colony was formally established in 1829 at what is today.
The Swan River Colony was renamed "" in 1832.
While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the most people who came to Australia after 1788 were free settlers, mainly from Britain andand to a less extent other European countries such as France and what is now Germany.
Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia.
The state of South Australia, on the other hand, was settled entirely by free settlers.
Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the 1850s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom.
Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, from the Postwar Period Australia welcomed a successive series of immigration from continental Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia and the rest of the world, becoming a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.
The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia in 1901, each colony now becoming a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation.
The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and made a significant contribution considering its small population to the Allied war effort in and as part of the British Commonwealth forces.
Australia was directly attacked in the.
Australian troops also made a valuable, if sometimes controversial, contribution to thetheand the War.
Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit.
Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act in 1986, ending any remnant power the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia.
The British Queen remains as the head of state with an Australian appointed Governor-General as her representative in Australia.
During the second half of the 20th century, there was growth in Aboriginal activism, accompanied by a greater willingness by the general community to acknowledge both the indigenous cultural heritage particularly in the visual arts and the darker side of colonial history.
Significant areas of the country have been returned to indigenous ownership as a result of the land rights movement.
In 2008, then-prime minister Kevin Rudd delivered an official apology to the Aboriginal people in Parliament for the atrocities committed against them by the white majority.
An Aboriginal ceremony has also been incorporated into Australia's State Opening of Parliament since 2008 as homage to its indigenous heritage.
Economy Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with other advanced economies.
The service industries, including tourism, education, and financial services, account for just over half of the Australian Gross Domestic Product — about 60%.
Primary industry - mining and agriculture - has accounted for most of Australia's exports in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, along with wheat, beef and wool.
The mining sector is sensitive to global demand for iron ore, with events in the Chinese and Indian economies having direct impacts.
Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and a minimum wage higher than the United States or the United Kingdom.
Due to a lack of supply, manual labourers and tradesmen are well-paid in Australia, often more so than white-collar professionals.
Politics Parliament House in Canberra Australia has a federal system of government, with six state and two territory governments, as well as a national government.
It also has several overseas territories in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, which are given considerable autonomy, and often not fully integrated with the rest of Australia.
Laws vary slightly from state to state, but are for the most part fairly uniform.
The national parliament is based on the British Westminster system, with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system.
At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
Each Member of the House of Representatives colloquially known as a Member of Parliament MP represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MPs.
On the other hand, similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory.
The Prime Minister is head of the national government, and is the leader of the political party or coalition of parties which has the most Members in the House of Representatives.
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is also Queen of Australia and the head of state, and is represented in Australia by the Governor-General.
The roles of the Queen and Governor-General are largely ceremonial, and the Prime Minister wields the most authority in government.
A referendum to change Australia to a republic was defeated in 1999 the idea to replace the Queen with a political appointee wasn't to the liking of most Australians.
Republicanism in Australia remains a regular conversation point, albeit low on the list of real priorities.
The Cabinet of Australia serves as the executive branch, and is headed by the Prime Minister, who appoints his Cabinet ministers from among the members of both houses of Parliament.
The judicial branch is topped by the High Court of Australia, which replaced the UK Privy Council as the highest court of appeal in 1986.
State and territory governments are organised similarly to the national government with a state parliament serving as the legislature, a Premier Chief Minister in the territories serving as the head of the state government, and its own judiciary.
There is also a Governor for each state serving as the Queen's representative in a mostly ceremonial role.
The two major political parties in Australia are the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal Party, which operates in coalition with the National Party referred to as the "Coalition".
There are smaller parties such as the Greens, and independents.
The Liberal Party is a centre-right conservative party, with the term "liberal" referring to a free market economy.
Culture Australia has a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle.
Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent.
Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the 1970s.
In the half century after the war Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.
The cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are culturally very diverse, and home to communities originating from all corners of the globe.
In all major cities you will find a variety of quality of global foods available in many restaurants.
Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts, while Brisbane promotes itself through various, multicultural urban villages.
Adelaide is known for being a centre for festivals, and for German cultural influences, while Perth is known for its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals, and the international fringe arts festival.
Smaller rural settlements generally still reflect a merch casino royale Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small Aboriginal population.
Most rural centres still welcome visitors and generally have a history and local produce to share.
Melbourne's Click the following article Town There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as Aboriginal people who live throughout the country in cities and in rural Aboriginal communities.
Although not particularly obvious to a new visitor, there are many opportunities and cultural activities for people wanting to explore Aboriginal culture.
Contrary to popular mythology, descendants from the original fleets of British convicts are a minority, and even during the years of transportation free settlers outnumbered convict migrants by at least five to one.
Nevertheless, it is seen as a badge of honour for someone to be 'Australian Royalty' in having been descended from a convict, however tenuous that connection may be.
Australians can be more socially conservative than some European cultures, but tend to be relaxed in their religious observance.
Modes of address just click for source casual and familiar and most Australians will tend to address you by your first name from first contact, and will expect that you do the same to them.
Many Australians travel on Easter weekend, so expect hotel rooms and airtickets to sell out months in advance.
Most states have one or two additional statewide holidays, with and having a day off for a horse race The Melbourne Cup and The Adelaide Cup.
Western Australia has Foundation Day typically the first Monday in June recognising the founding of the state since 1829 but also celebrates the Queen's Birthday at a different date to the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date is such close proximity to Foundation Day.
When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday and Tuesday if necessary are usually declared holidays in lieu, although the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself.
Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday.
Supermarkets and other stores may open for limited hours on some public holidays and on holidays in lieu, but are almost always closed on Christmas Day 25 DecemberGood Friday, Easter Sunday and ANZAC Day morning.
Expects all pubs to be packed full of people watching the game, while many people will hold big watching parties in their homes.
Held on the last Saturday of September go here first Saturday of October.
Particularly popular in Queensland and New South Wales.
Usually held on the last Sunday of September or first Sunday of October.
Peak holiday times Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season.
Many attractions but not all are closed on Christmas and New Year's day.
Summer school holidays start before Christmas and last the whole of January, and it is considered the busiest and and most expensive time to visit.
Holiday homes on beaches are often booked out months in advance as well as charging a significant premium.
The long Easter weekend can also be busy as parents take their kids out for a last time before Winter arrives.
Australian teenagers celebrate the end of school at the end of November and early December for the 3 weeks known as schoolies.
The volume of teen revellers can completely change the nature of some of the cities and towns they choose to visit, especially coastal towns like in New South Wales, the in Queensland and various localities along the in Victoria.
Time Australia can have up to five different time zones during the daylight And wiesbaden casino permanenzen think period, and four at other times.
Time zone boundaries do not always follow state boundaries.
For instance, the town ofalthough in New South Wales, follows South Australia time, and Norfolk Island has its own time zone despite being a part of New South Wales.
Time zones in Australia from GMT In the east, Tasmania, New South Wales and Victoria always have the same time.
In the centre, South Australia and the are half an hour behind during the winter, but the Northern Territory doesn't observe daylight saving while South Australia does.
During daylight saving South Australia remains half an hour behind New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, but moves half an hour ahead of Queensland.
The Northern Territory remains half an hour behind Queensland, but moves an hour and a half behind New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
In the west, Western Australia is two hours behind the eastern states in winter, and also doesn't observe daylight saving.
It moves three hours behind the eastern states that observe daylight saving remaining two hours behind Queensland.
There are no official abbreviations or names for Australian time zones, and you may see a few variations used.
EST, CST, WST along with EDT, CDT are sometimes used.
In conversation, the abbreviations aren't used.
People tend to say Sydney time, Brisbane time, or Perth time.
Expect blank stares from most if you start talking about Central Summer Time.
In those states which observe daylight saving, it commences on the first Sunday in October and ends on the first Sunday in April.
Popularly referred to as a "two-forty volt socket".
Hotel bathrooms will often have a type C and A socket marked "for shavers only" that will down-convert to 110 V for a North American style socket for shavers.
Voltage is compatible with Europe and you'll just need a conversion plug that can be obtained from supermarkets and convenience stores as well as the airport.
From North America or other 110 V countries, check your appliance for voltage tolerances before using a conversion plug.
See also Topics in Australia See also: The English language is universally spoken and understood in Australia.
Australian English as generally spoken is distinctive in accent and idiom.
It mostly developed from the speech of the United Kingdom in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Nevertheless, as Australia is a global melting pot, particularly in the major cities, you will encounter cultures and hear languages from all around the world, and you will often find areas and suburbs that predominately reflect the language of their respective immigrant communities.
Foreign languages are taught at school, but students rarely progress past the basics.
Australian English generally follows British spelling conventions and vocabulary choices, although it is also known for its own colour and colloquialisms.
People in rural areas may have a broader accent, using some of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas, while highly educated urban dwellers sometimes use a cultivated accent similar to en ligne casino suisse meilleur of their British equivalents.
Australians understand different varieties of English, and you may look foolish in your attempts at the local slang.
There is little regional variation in Australian English, although accents tend to be broader outside of the large cities, and the pronunciation of certain words like "dance" and "chance" varies between regions.
Most regional differences come down to word usage.
For example, swimming clothes are known as cossies or swimmers in New South Wales, togs in Queensland, and bathers in Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and South Australia.
Many indigenous communities around Australia and the speak English as a second language.
It is rare to find signs in a second language, except in urban areas with a high population of Asian immigrants and students, where signs and restaurant menus in and are a common sight; and also around and the in Queensland where some signs but not road signs are written in ordue to the large number of tourists.
Some warning signs at beaches are written in several foreign languages.
Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, crown casino perth wiki should do some advance planning.
Some tour companies specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with language guides.
Over a hundred Aboriginal languages are still known and spoken by Aboriginal people, particularly those living in rural outback communities, and those in the Torres Strait Islands.
These languages are all different, so you won't see an "Aboriginal" phrasebook in the travel bookshops.
Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although residents of some remote communities may not be fluent in the language.
The standard sign language is Auslan standing for Australian Sign Language.
When a sign interpreter is present for a public event, he or she will use Auslan.
Users of British and New Zealand Sign Languages will be able to understand much, though not all, of the language.
Auslan and NZSL are largely derived from BSL, and all three languages use the same two-handed manual alphabet.
Users of sign languages that have different origins such as the French Sign Language family, which also includes American and Irish Sign Languages will not be able to understand Auslan.
Visa policy of Australia Entry requirements All visitors - apart from citizens of New Zealand - require a in advance of travel.
If you are visiting for a holiday of less than 90 days, there are three types of visas you may apply for, depending on your nationality.
In addition, citizens of are also eligible for an ETA, but must apply through an approved Taiwanese travel agent, or by e-mail through the relevant Australian diplomatic mission if living abroad.
This fee can sometimes be avoided if you obtain your ETA through a travel agent when booking your travel with them.
Some online agents may also sell ETAs.
Travelling on a United Kingdom passport Despite the strong historic links between the UK and Australia, there are actually no differences in visa requirements for citizens of the United Kingdom and the rest of the European Union.
This is also applicable to working visas.
It is unclear if there will be any changes after the UK's anticipated departure from the EU in October 2019.
These visas are free, but otherwise effectively identical to the ETA.
You must apply on-line.
Passport holders of 55 countries, including all the ETA and eVisitor eligible countries and,, and the can make applications on-line.
Other nationalities must apply using the paper form, and may need to visit an embassy or visa processing centre.
Like the ETA and eVisitor, a Visitor 600 is by default issued for a three month stay.
Unlike the other options however, a 600 visa can be issued for a longer stay of up to one year.
For more than a three month stay, you will likely be asked for supporting documentation about the reason for your visit and your ties to your country of origin and may need to attend an interview.
Depending on your nationality, the embassy or visa processing centre may also require you to have an Australian sponsor before issuing the visa.
ETAs and eVisitors are valid for multiple entries within a 12-month period.
If you're eligible for either, it may be easier to stay the three months you're allowed, go to, or some other country reachable by a low cost airline for a few days and come back - restarting the 90-day clock.
Doing this more than once, however, may cause immigration authorities to become suspicious, so proceed with caution if you pursue this route.
There is a special arrangement for parents of Australians, including Australian permanent residents.
The 600 visa can be valid for 18 months, three years, or five years and allow a maximum stay of 12 months during an 18-month period, depending on the circumstances.
In most cases, ETAs and eVisitors are approved instantly and the visa will be issued and available for use immediately.
If further enquiries are needed you may be asked to return to the application system later to see if you've been approved.
Over 90% are processed the same day.
In the worst-case scenario your application can be diverted for manual checks that can take months.
If you are visiting Australia to work, study or for medical treatment, check to make sure you have the right kind of visa, as a tourist visa may not be sufficient.
For all tourist visa classes you must be able to demonstrate your ability to support yourself financially for the time you intend to spend in Australia and meet character requirements.
If you have a criminal conviction, contact an Australian Embassy or visa processing centre before applying or making travel arrangements.
Inorganic powder limitation Passengers on transit through Australia are prohibited to carry more than 350 ml or 350 grams of inorganic powder into aircraft's cabins.
article source you are transiting through Australia, remain airside for a maximum of 8 hours, have a confirmed onward booking, have the correct entry documentation for the onward destination and are a citizen of New Zealand, the,, the,,,, the,,ROK,,regardless of nationality statustheoryou do not need to apply for any advance visa.
All other passengers who transit through Australia must apply for a free-of-charge Transit Visa subclass 771 before travel.
New Zealand citizens may travel to and work in Australia for any length of time without a pre-arranged visa - a Special Category New Zealand Citizen visa subclass 444 will be granted to them on arrival.
Non-citizen permanent residents of New Zealand are not eligible for visa-free entry.
New Zealand citizens may still be denied entry on the basis of criminal convictions and should seek advice from an Australian diplomatic mission before travel.
At selected airports, visitors who are citizens of,the and the may make use of the SmartGate for automated immigration clearance when entering Australia.
Being able to use SmartGate does not exempt you from visa requirements.
Customs and quarantine Australia has strict quarantine requirements regarding importing animal and plant derived products any food, wooden products, seeds, etc.
You must declare all such material, even if the items are permitted.
Baggage is frequently scanned and may be examined by dogs.
Declared material will be examined and, depending on the circumstances, may be retained, disposed of, returned to you, or treated by quarantine at your expense.
You may have to pick the item up at a later time.
Processed and sealed chocolates and other confectionery are usually permitted after being declared and examined, as are reasonable quantities of infant formula with an accompanying infant.
Different rules apply depending on the origin country of foods, and the state in which you are entering Australia.
Check with the for more details.
Travellers who are 18 years old or older are allowed to bring up to 2.
These items may not be imported by anybody under the age of 18, and travellers who exceed their duty free allowance are liable to tax on all goods of that category, not just the amount in excess of the limit.
Some shells, coral and items made from a protected species are also prohibited to discourage the trade in items that may originate from a threatened ecosystem or species.
Not declaring may expose you to a fine, possible seizure of the cash, or in the worst case even arrest.
By plane Qantas landing at Australia is a long way from anywhere else in the world, so for most visitors the only practical way of getting into Australia is by air.
Australia's main point click the following article entry is 's.
Other major entry points into Australia are the airports atand.
There are also limited international services into Adelaide, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin and the Gold Coast.
Sydney is a 3-hour flight fromNew Zealand, a 7-11 hour flight from many countries in Asia, a 14-hour flight from the west of the United States and Canada, a 14-hour flight froma 13-16 hour flight fromand up to a 24-hour flight from western including a stopover.
On account of long journey times from some destinations, most travellers from Europe must have a stop-over, commonly in, or.
Since March 2018, Qantas operates a nonstop flight from to Perth taking "only" 17 hours — the first ever regular nonstop route here Europe and Australia, and plans to start a flight from Brisbane to Chicago in April 2020.
Qantas also has plans to introduce more ambitious non-stop routes from Sydney to London and New York later.
If you have to change to a domestic flight in a gateway city, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth all have separate domestic terminals, requiring some time and complexity to transit: check the guides.
Melbourne, Adelaide, Darwin, Cairns and the Gold Coast all have gates in the one terminal building or within easy walking distance of each other.
Australia's national carrier iswhich together with its low-cost subsidiary operate many flights into Australia from all 6 inhabited continents of the world.
For those coming from Europe, and Hong Kong's make good alternatives to Qantas, British Airways or the Gulf airlines for flights into Australia.
Some routes into Australia are operated by such as AirAsia X, AirAsia Indonesia, Scoot and.
Private aviation Private aviation companies such as and offer direct private flights year-round using a variety of aircraft.
Popular airports for charter jets include Sydney Bankstown Airport,and Melbourne Essendon Airport.
By boat Cruise ships are available mostly in the November to February cruising season, and there are usually about 10 ships that arrive in Australia from other countries during this time.
You can cruise to Australia, and then fly home.
Holland America Line, Princess Cruises and Royal Caribbean all offer cruises to Australia across the Pacific.
You may sail to Australia in your own yacht, just make sure you submit the right paperwork to Border Force, and arrive at an approved.
There are no international ferry services operating.
By overland transport There was a time when a couple of tour operators offered overland trips from London to Sydney, with only a short hop by air from South East Asia to North Western Australia while the bus went by barge.
For the truly determined overland traveller, you can get a ferry from Singapore to Indonesia and make your way across to Bali, where you can fly to Darwin 2,000 flight kilometres.
For the intrepid, ferries to West Timor, a bus to Dili and a just click for source to Darwin right! ft lauderdale casino apologise mean only 700 km in the air.
For determined travellers, you may be able to obtain passage from Singapore by freighter vessel, organized through a travel agent.
Australia is huge but sparsely populated over much of its area, and you can sometimes travel many hours before finding the next trace of civilisation, especially once you leave the south-eastern coastal fringe.
Almost all modern Australian maps, including street directories, use the Geocentric Datum of Australia GDA as their grid reference, which is for all purposes identical to the WGS84 used by the GPS.
You can locate most things on an Australian map or street directory if you just have the "GPS coordinates".
Quarantine There are restrictions on carrying fruit and vegetables including honey between states and even between regions of states that are involved in fruit growing.
If you are driving long distances or interstate, or flying between states, don't stock up on fruits and vegetables.
By car See also: Part of the Stuart Highway in Central Australia Australia has a generally well-maintained system of roads and highways, and cars are a commonly used method of transport.
All the mainland state capitals are linked to each other by sealed visit web page />Some parts are dual carriageway but many sections are one lane each way.
Roads linking minor centres or what can look like short-cuts on the map can be narrow or gravel roads.
Major hazards on Australian roads are wildlife and large trucks.
Be sure to take extra care when driving at dusk or in the dark, as the risk of animal collisions increases significantly.
Major regional areas have sealed paved dual-lane roads, but isolated areas may have poorly maintained dirt roads or even tracks.
Distances and speeds are specified in kilometres and fuel is sold by the litre.
There are no tolls on roads or bridges outside of the urban areas of Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane.
While public transport is usable in the cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth, a car is handy, sometimes even essential, to get around anywhere else.
Australia drives on the left.
Overseas visitors who are used to driving on the right should take care when they first drive, and again when they are driving on country roads with little traffic.
Generally, overseas licenses are valid for driving in Australia for three months after arrival.
If the licence is not in English, an International Driving Permit IDP is required in addition to your licence.
Licensing regulations and road rules vary slightly from state to state.
Australia's low population density and large size makes for long driving times between major centres.
Seek local advice for the best route, and how much time to allow.
While major highways are well serviced, anyone leaving sealed paved roads in inland Australia is advised to take advice from local authorities, check weather and road conditions, and carry sufficient spare fuel, spare parts, spare tyres, matches, food and water.
Some remote roads might see one car per month or less.
Cellular coverage is non-existent outside of major highways and towns and you should take some precautions in case of emergency.
It is a good idea to advise a person you know and trust of your route and advise them to alert authorities if you do not contact them within a reasonable amount of time after your scheduled arrival at your destination.
Carrying a Personal Locator Beacon PLB or satellite phone should be considered when travelling in remote areas, especially where you may not be able to make contact for several days.
Police will not automatically start looking for you if you don't report in.
Make sure you get one with a GPS built in.
These can be borrowed from some local police stations, such as those in the Blue Mountains in New South Wales.
If you click to see more to hire one, sort it out before you leave a major city, as you won't find hire places in small towns.
Don't expect an immediate rescue even if you trigger a Click the following article />Heat and dehydration at any time of year can kill you.
If stranded, stay with your vehicle and do what you can to improve your visibility from the air.
Do not take this advice lightly; even local people die out there when their car breaks down and they are not reported missing.
If you do have to abandon your car say you break down and then get a liftcall in quickly to the local police station, to avoid the embarrassment and cost of a search being started for you.
Car rental Major cities around Australia have multiple outlets providing a wide range of rental vehicles from major international rental companies.
In smaller towns car rental can be difficult to find.
One-way fees often apply from smaller regional outlets.
Contractual restrictions Conditions upon the use of rental vehicles usually exist on travelling into or out of and the or on the car ferries to Tasmania, and.
Rental cars in capital cities usually have unlimited mileage.
In small towns they usually only include 100 km a day before a surcharge is applied.
Always ensure you thoroughly check the vehicle for any damage, including all click at this page glass and the roof see more, and document any found in detail with the renter before leaving the depot.
You must have a licence written in English or an International Driving Permit IDP from your home country to drive anywhere in Australia.
Check the contract conditions carefully if you are under 25 and also check that your licence class matches the vehicle you wish to rent before you book it.
Companies include,, and.
Smaller cars you can hire can be manual stick-shiftwhereas anything larger will mostly be automatic.
If you do not hold an Australian driving licence, some rental vehicle companies will require you to take a freeaimed at tourists, that covers the basic road rules, or will take you on a short drive to assess whether you are competent behind the wheel.
Campervans A campervan is a vehicle, usually a minivan, converted into a motorhome recreational vehiclemost often catering to the vast number of young European and American backpackers traversing the country.
The East Coast from Sydney to Cairns is especially abundant with happy, hungover youths travelling around in these vehicles.
Campervans vary widely in fitting and quality, with some featuring showers, toilets, kitchens and more, while others have little more than mattresses in the back.
They are generally suited for 2—6 travellers depending on the vehicle's size.
Check the extra charges very carefully and make sure that you are not paying the same or more for a lesser quality vehicle.
Don't assume hiring a camper will be a cheaper way of seeing Australia.
The cost of fuel varies greatly depending on where you are.
Fuel costs in outback Australia are much higher than urban areas.
Add on the cost of hire, etc.
Prices can change dramatically depending on the travel period.
So don't expect to find a cheap campervan rental over Christmas and new year's eve for example.
Suppliers also fix prices depending on availability.
Like flight tickets, it's always cheaper to book in advance.
Car purchase There is a substantial second hand market in cars and campers for backpackers wishing to do extended road trips around Australia.
Take common-sense precautions if purchasing a car.
Remember the importance of a thorough mechanical checklist, licensing, registration and insurance.
State government services are available free of charge to ensure it is unencumbered by a finance arrangement and that it has not been previously written off as a result of an accident.
It also lists casino baby photographer for private sale and from dealerships.
You can check against a vehicle identification number or chassis number and it works for most states and territories including New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia. out the market price of any vehicle.
By taxi Larger towns and cities have taxi services.
Uber is available in major cities.
There are several smartphone taxi booking applications such asthat make finding a licensed taxi simple.
Outside of cities, towns may have a limited taxi service.
Maybe one or two drivers who may be part time.
Smaller or remote towns may have no service at all.
When travelling alone, it is customary for a passenger to sit in the front passenger seat, next to the driver, rather than in the back.
However, if you prefer to sit in the back then it isn't really a problem.
By plane Qantas and Jetstar aircraft at Melbourne Airport Due to the large distances involved, flying is a well-patronised form of travel in Australia.
Services along the main business travel corridor Melbourne-Sydney-Brisbane are run almost like a click to see more service, with flights leaving every 15 minutes during the day.
The best fares are almost always available on the most competitive routes, whereas routes to remote destinations with fewer flights tend to be more expensive.
Qantas actually do often offer competitive prices, so don't ignore that option just because they are the national epic casino />Several airlines service regional destinations.
Expect discounts on these airlines to be harder to come by, and for standard airfares to be above what you would pay for the same distance between major centres.
Charters See also: Scheduled aviation only flies to a handful of the thousands of airports around Australia.
There are numerous options to charter aircraft that may take you direct to smaller country towns or even offshore islands.
The costs can be comparable to scheduled airlines if there are 3 or more people flying in a group.
The Australian Private Pilots Licence permits private pilots to carry passengers and to recover the cost of the plane hire and fuel from passengers, but not to advertise for passengers or fly commercially.
That said, if you check the web pages of local flying clubs, there are always private pilots willing to fly on a fine weekend if someone is willing to put in for the cost of the plane and fuel.
By train See also:Map of the main inter-city rail lines in Australia Visitors from areas with well-developed long distance rail systems such as Europe and Japan may be surprised by the lack of high-speed, inter-city rail services in Australia.
A historical lack of cooperation between the states, combined with sheer distances and a relatively small population to service, have left Australia with a national rail network that is relatively slow and used mainly for freight.
Nevertheless, train travel between cities can be very scenic and present opportunities to see new aspects of the country, and can be a cost-effective way to get to regional towns and cities, which tend to have more expensive flights than those between the state capitals.
The long-distance rail services that do exist are mainly used to link regional townships with the state capital, such as to Melbourne, or Cairns to Brisbane.
In Queensland, a tilting train operates from Brisbane to and Brisbane to Cairns Spirit of Queensland.
Queensland also has passenger services to inland centres including The Spirit of the OutbackThe InlanderThe Westlander and The Savannahlander.
There are also inter-city train services operated by Great Southern Railways on the Melbourne- The OverlandSydney-Adelaide- Indian Pacific and Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin.
However, these are not "high-speed" services and actually cost more than flying, so if you do not enjoy train travel as part of your holiday then this is probably not wind creek casino directions you.
Tasmania has no passenger rail services.
The Northern Territory has the rail line linking Darwin to Adelaide through Alice Springs only, and the Australian Capital Territory has a single railway station close to the centre of Canberra.
TransWA also operates coach services to much of the state where former rail services operated in the past, especially the South West of the state.
Rail passes No rail pass includes all train travel throughout Australia.
However, if you are a train buff that intends travelling extensively by rail, there are some passes that may save you money.
Plan your trip carefully before investing in a rail pass.
Country train services are infrequent and can arrive at regional destinations at unsociable hours.
Use any NSW Trainlink services trains and coaches.
Get anywhere in NSW, and north to Brisbane and south to Melbourne.
Local public transport Melbourne is well served by an extensive tram network.
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, and source train and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Melbourne, Adelaide, and Sydney, and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth.
The remaining capital cities have bus services only.
See those city guides articles for public transport details.
casino in orange county regional cities and towns have local bus services, but see the destination guides for service information, as frequency can be poor and weekend and evening services non-existent.
By motorail Australia had a tradition of motorail, allowing you to carry carry your car with you on special car carriages attached to the back of the train.
This service is now only available on Great Southern Railways between Adelaide, Perth, and Darwin.
You cannot remove your car at any of the intermediate stations.
By bus Bus travel in Australia is cheap and convenient, although the distances for interstate connections are daunting.
Greyhound has the largest bus route network.
There are no bus services from the other capital cities to Perth.
Firefly Express has services connecting Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney.
Greyhound travels to over 1100 destinations in Australia daily every day of the year.
It has a variety of ticketing options allow you to travel at your own pace, hopping on and off as many times as your ticket allows.
Murrays has services connecting Canberra with Sydney, the and.
By boat The Spirit of Tasmania II at Port Melbourne Sydney, Brisbane, and Perth have ferries as part of their public transport system.
Some smaller roads in the regional areas still have punts to carry cars across rivers and canals.
The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well.
However, large inter city ferry services are not common.
The only long distance ferry route connects Tasmania to the mainland and carries cars and passengers on the route across Bass Strait daily between Melbourne and.
The service has been suspended frequently, but is operating as of Dec 2018.
By thumb It is legal to hitch hike in some states in Australia, so long as certain guidelines are followed.
However, it is less commonly done than in neighbouring New Zealand.
In Australia hitch hiking is often frowned upon by locals and police, especially in metropolitan areas.
Hitch hiking is illegal in Victoria and Queensland.
It is also illegal to stand on the verge or walk along freeways often called "motorways" in New South Wales and Queensland in all states effectively making hitch hiking illegal in many practical places, in all states.
If forced to hitch hike due to an emergency you may find a motorist willing to take you to the nearest town to obtain help.
Many major inter-city highways and freeways have emergency telephone units to request help.
It is common to see a tourist hitching in rural areas.
The best time to hitch hike is early morning.
The best location is near, but not on, the main exit from the town you are in.
By bicycle Cycling the long distances between towns in Australia is not common, and most long distance highways in Australia have poorly developed facilities for cyclists.
Intrepid travellers do manage to cover the longer distances by bicycle, and have a different experience of Australia.
Long distance cyclists can be encountered on the Nullarbor and other isolated highways.
In some states, former railway lines have been changed into rail trails.
In Western Australia long distance cycle trails have been developed for mountain bikers.
The Munda Biddi trail is many days through bushland, with huts provided for camping along the route.
Wherever you cycle - if you leave the urban sprawl of the capital cities, careful planning is required to ensure the correct supplies are carried.
Hiking Walking through some parts of Australia is the only way to experience some particular landscapes.
The Bicentennial National Trail is one of the longest trails in the world, stretching from in Northern Queensland, to.
A koala See also: Australian flora and fauna is unique to the island continent, the result of having been isolated from the rest of the world for millions of years.
Amongst Australian animals are a large group of marsupials mammals with a pouch and monotremes mammals that lay eggs.
Just some of the animal icons of Australia are the kangaroo national symbol and the koala.
A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment.
See the Warrawong Fauna Sanctuary if you are in South Australia, or visit the koalas with best view in the world, at Taronga Zoo in Sydney.
You won't see any kangaroos hopping down the street inbut they're common on the outskirts of most urban areas.
See lots of echidnas on Kangaroo Island.
Best seen during the day, there is a thriving and friendly population on Raymond Island near in Victoria.
You have a good chance on Otway Coast, on theor even in the National Park walk near on the Sunshine Coast.
Try the platypus reserves in or in New South Wales, or in Emu Creek at just out of.
Convict sites Much of Australia's modern history was as a penal colony for convicts from the United Kingdom, and there are many historical sites that still stand as a reminder of the days of convict transportation.
Perhaps the most famous of these sites are in and Fremantle Prison inlocated near .
There are also many other sites scattered throughout the country.
Landmarks Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over.
From in the red centre, to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House in Sydney.
Small Australian towns have a tradition of making big sculptures as landmarks.
Australia has thousands of heritage-registered sites, with 20.
Sports Part of an AFL match between the Hawthorn and Essendon teams Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns.
As a testament to this, Australia has a track record of being one of the best performing teams at the Olympics despite its relatively small population.
The majority of games are played over the weekend period from Friday night to Monday night.
Australian sports fans are generally well behaved, and it is not uncommon for fans of two opposing teams to sit together during a match, even if the teams are bitter rivals.
While the cheering can get really passionate, actual crowd violence is extremely rare.
Football The term "football" can be ambiguous in Australia, and differs in meaning depending on where you are and who you are talking to.
However, the term on its own is almost never used to refer to association football, which is known as "soccer" in Australia.
In general, "football", or the slang term "footy", refers to rugby league in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, while it refers to Australian rules football anywhere else in Australia.
Catch a game at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
Although originating from and most popular in the state of Victoria, the premier national competition, known as thehas teams from Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and the Gold Coast as well.
The AFL Grand Final, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground either in late September or early October each year, is the most watched event on the Australian sporting calendar.
The AFL now runs a women's league, known asduring the summer.
While obviously not as popular as the men's game, it still enjoys a decent following.
The next women's season in 2020 will feature 14 teams from all of the current men's AFL markets.
The games rotate around all the capital cities.
To experience the traditional game catch the New Year's test match at the Sydney cricket ground played for 5 days starting from the 2nd of January, or the Boxing Day Test match in Melbourne.
Or for a more lively entertaining form, that only takes a few hours, try a twenty-twenty match.
The final form is "One Day" Cricket, international matches generally start at 13:00 and finish at 22:00 or 23:00 a "Day-Nighter"with most domestic and occasional international matches played from 11:00 to 18:00.
The Australia Day One Day International is held in Adelaide every 26 January.
It is held in Australia every three or four years, and is one of the highlights of the cricket calendar.
Whenever Australia hosts the series, the five matches are held in the five largest cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
Or the Medibank International in in January.
Hunter Stadium in Newcastle.
The Australian national team, the Wallabies, also host international teams during winter, including New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina for The Rugby Championship formerly the Tri Nations tournament.
Teams include Melbourne in Victoria, Brisbane, North Queensland and the Gold Coast in Queensland, a team from New Zealand, with the rest of the teams coming from suburban areas in Sydney, and some in regional areas of New South Wales such as Newcastle and Canberra.
The competition culminates in the NRL Grand Final, which is held every year in the Stadium Australia in Sydney.
The biggest event in the rugby league calendar of Australia is the State of Origin series between teams representing the states of New South Wales and Queensland, which consists of an annual series of three matches of which two are are played in Sydney and Brisbane, and the third is played in either of those cities or sometimes, Melbourne or Perth.
Many fans consider the level of play in the State of Origin series to be higher than that in the Rugby League World Cup.
The Australian national team is arguably the strongest in the world, with England, New Zealand and Jamaica usually posing the biggest challenge to Australian dominance.
Many immigrants and second-generation Australians hail from European countries where passion for the sport is very high.
The Australia national team the Socceroos won the Asia Cup for the first time in 2015 and have raised the sport's profile significantly.
There is a national A-League, which is a fully professional league involving teams from Australia and one from New Zealand, with games played weekly during the summer.
While women's soccer is less popular as a spectator sport, it enjoys a decent following, with the national team the Matildas regularly participating in the World Cup.
The women's counterpart to the A-League is the Casino paradise goa />It is used annually as a racetrack for the Australian Grand Prix and associated support races.
Events are held all over the country between March and early December.
The famous Bathurst 1000 is traditionally held in October.
The premier event in Australia's horse racing calendar is the annualwhich also ranks among the most prestigious races in the world.
Greyhound racing tracks can be found in all of Australia's state capitals, as well as in many small towns throughout the country.
Australia has seemingly endless sandy beaches.
Follow the crowds to the world-famous in Sydney, or on the Gold Coast.
Or find a stretch all for yourself but beware of dangerous rips on beaches, it is considerably safer to find a patrolled beach.
The surf is smaller and warmer in the Tropical North, where the reef breaks the swell, and larger and colder in the south with waves rolling in from the Southern Ocean.
And yes, in the middle it is just right.
Cable Beach in is swept pristine daily by the tide, has perfect sand, and warm water - go in winter.
The most expensive resort in the world couldn't dream of making a pool this good.
Inland Australia tends to be dry, but there are freshwater lakes where you would least expect them.
Explore inland of Cairns at the Atherton Tablelands, or head outback to the.
Watch out for crocodiles.
If its hot, and there is water, there will be a place to swim.
Wherever you are, just ask around for francisco casinos bay area in san favourite swimming spot, with a waterhole and rope to swing on.
Watch out for crocodiles.
The local swimming pool is often the hub of community life on a summer Sunday in the country towns of New South Wales and Victoria.
Find your spot by the water, and get out the towel.
Tropical north in the winter, down south in the summer.
As always when in Australia, protect yourself from the sun.
Bushwalking Bushwalking is a popular Australian activity.
You can go bushwalking in the many National parks and rainforests.
Or take a trip out to Julian rocks offor just dive in off the beach to see the tropical fish in.
Try the trails in the or black mountain in Canberra, or cycle for days along the Munda Biddi Mountain Bike trail in Western Australia.
The horse has a rich tradition in the settlement of Australia since the arrival of the first European settlers.
Relying on the horse to travel the vast distances and harsh environments of Australia was the foundation of a strong and lasting relationship between Australians and their horses.
Today horse riding in Australia includes many recreational and occupational activities from cattle musters on vast stations, to the multimillion-dollar racing industry.
On the outskirts of towns and cities and out in the rural landscape, you will see the many pony paddocks and much loved horses that are a testament to the ongoing passion and commitment Australian horse owners have to their horses and the enjoyment they bring.
New South Wales and Victoria have well developed ski facilities.
Tasmania can also have skiing for a few months of the year, given the right weather.
If you think Australia is the most unpopulated and most remote place on earth where you can go to escape any trace of human contact, just find a good surf break in the most remote corner of Australia and you will be guaranteed to find someone surfing it.
Australians love to surf and wherever there is surf there are Aussie surfers, any time and under any conditions.
Virtually every coastline, except along the top end from Cairns across to Karatha has surf and surfers there to ride it.
Crown Casino in Melbourne is Australia's largest, located at Southbank, but there are others scattered in every capital city and in Cairns,Alice Springs, the Gold Coast and.
All capital cities have horse racing every weekend, with on-track and off-track betting available.
They are usually family occasions, and fashion and being seen are part of the event.
Just about every pub in New South Wales will have a tab, where you can place a bet without leaving your chair at the bar.
Greyhound racing and trotting happens in the evenings, usually with smaller crowds, more beer, and less fashion.
Smaller country towns have race meetings every few months or even annually.
These are real events for the local communities, and see the smaller towns come to life.
Head outback to the races, or if you find the streets deserted it is probably ten past three on the first Tuesday in November the running of the Melbourne cup.
Lizard races, cane toad races, camel races, crab races.
Betting on these races is totally illegal and you'll find the TIB Totally Illegal Betting around the back of the shed.
If you are around for Anzac Day 25 Aprilthen betting on coins thrown into the air will be happening at your local RSL club, wherever you are.
Pick your sport, pick a winner, and hand over your money at the counter.
Gambling is illegal for under-18's.
This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children.
Royal shows Each of Australia's states and mainland territories is home to a royal show, which are agricultural fairs that also feature amusement rides and other forms of entertainment, and serve as Australia's equivalent of state fairs in the United States.
These shows are held in the respective state and territory capitals, usually during the spring or autumn months.
It is divided into 100 cents ¢.
The pre-2006 New Zealand 5¢, 10¢ and 20¢ coins were virtually identical to their Australian counterparts, save for a different tails side, so it's not uncommon to come across them among your Australian change.
Australian notes are printed on plastic polymer rather than paper.
If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash.
The exact amount will be charged if paying by card.
The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators.
Its exchange value to other currencies can be quite volatile, and 1-2% changes in a day are reasonably regular occurrences.
Currency exchange Australian dollar banknotes in a wallet As the Australian dollar is considered to be a major world currency, it is widely available at money changers and banks throughout the world.
Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, or a combination of all three.
You can avoid rip-off rates by using banks in major centres, and staying clear of airports and tourist centres.
However, both the best and worst rates come from the small private sellers, and you can certainly save money over the banks by shopping around.
Always get a quote before changing money.
You'll usually need to have photo identification with you, although you may be exempt if only changing a small amount.
Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies.
These exchange outlets - especially the ones at the airport - can charge 10% over the best exchange that can be casinos city louisiana from shopping around.
Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2.
Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange.
Don't assume every bank will offer the same exchange.
A simple calculation will let you know what offers the best deal for amount you wish to exchange.
There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport.
International airport terminals will have teller machines that can dispense Australian currency with Cirrus, Maestro, MasterCard or Visa cards.
Banking Opening an Australian bank account is fairly straightforward if you have a residential address in Australia.
You will need to provide evidence of your identity, such as a passport, to the bank in order for your application to be processed.
The largest retail banks in Australia are, and.
Cash dispensing Automatic Teller Machines ATMs are available in almost every Australian town.
Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer.
The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged.
Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia.
Costs Fast changing currency valuations The Australian dollar is one of the world's more dynamic currencies, partly because of its relation to commodity prices such as iron and coal.
Australia is generally an expensive place to visit, with some surveys having more info Australia as the third most article source country in the world in terms of consumer prices, only behind Norway and Switzerland.
A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less.
A bus trip, a little less again.
A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel.
There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks.
Art Galleries and some attractions are free.
Tax Australia has a 10% Goods and Services Tax GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services.
GST is always included in the displayed price of any consumer purchases.
Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount.
Unlike in many other countries, this applies to both Australian citizens and foreigners.
Make sure you get a tax invoice from the supplier which will have the goods itemised, the GST paid, and the ABN of the supplier.
Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia.
If any of the items have to be checked in for whatever reason, make sure that you locate the customs office and let customs officers sight the goods before checking-in your bags.
Also allow at least an extra 30 minutes before departure, and if possible enter the details online before you arrive at the airport.
The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card.
There is no refund available for GST on services.
Remember the goods are now considered duty-free, and you'll have to pay GST on them if you bring them back into Australia and they are in excess of your duty-free allowances.
Credit cards Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia.
Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept town ms in sam casino tunica, as do many small stores.
Australian debit cards can also be used via a system known as EFTPOS.
Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos.
Visa or MasterCard are the most universally accepted cards, then American Express, then Diners Club with other cards either never or very rarely accepted.
American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains.
Smaller shops may have a minimum purchase amount to use a credit or debit card, due to the fixed transaction costs they have.
Others may simply discourage use of cards for small purchases.
All Australian issued cards use a PIN for purchases.
If you have an overseas issued card without a PIN you can crown casino perth wiki sign for purchases, however, shopkeepers unused to dealing with overseas cards may not be aware of this.
If you can, try to have a PIN on your card if your bank allows it.
If not, you may have to explain that you have an overseas card at places that expect you to have a PIN - and wait while they find a pen.
Contactless credit cards, Apple Pay and Google Pay are accepted at virtually all terminals.
Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers and service stations.
Surcharges are far more common and higher for American Express and Diners Club typically 2%-4% than they are for Visa and MasterCard typically 1.
UnionPay credit cards are becoming more common in tourist shops and restaurants due to the rising number of Chinese visitors.
It is difficult to use them in other businesses however.
Haggling Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer.
It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items.
For example, it would not be unusual to get 10% off an item of jewelry that was not already reduced in price.
The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price.
Tipping is not customary in Australia, although tips are accepted if you freely choose to give one.
Restaurants are required to include the cost of service and taxes in posted prices.
You may, however, choose to leave a small tip if the service was exemplary.
When paying by credit card, some higher end restaurants give the option of adding a tip to your payment, although it is completely optional.
Other places provide a coin jar by the cashier labelled 'Tips', but more often than not, diners do not leave one.
Bartenders are rarely tipped.
Other types of service personnel, including hotel staff, porters, tour guides, food delivery drivers and hairdressers do not expect to receive tips.
Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar.
It is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.
Casinos in Australia generally prohibit tipping of gaming staff, as it is considered bribery.
Similarly, offering to tip government officials will usually be interpreted as bribery and can potentially be treated as a criminal offence.
Trading hours A shopping centre in Perth Australia's base trading hours are Monday to Friday, 09:00-17:00.
Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 21:00 on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney.
Sunday trading is common in the main cities but does not exist in all rural areas.
Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state.
See our localised guides for more local information.
Major supermarket chains in main centres are generally open at least until 21:00 on weekdays and often until midnightbut generally have reduced hours on weekends.
Fast food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late.
Many food courts in city centres typically close by 4PM and completely closed on weekends if targeting office workers, but other food courts in shopping centres have longer hours.
Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week.
Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours.
Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays.
In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons.
Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours.
Tourist areas within cities, such as in Sydney have longer trading hours every night.
Australian banks are open Monday-Friday 09:00-16:00 only, often closing at 17:00 on Fridays.
Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.
Australian cuisine is mainly influenced by its British colonial heritage, but with a history of immigration from other parts of Europe like Germany, Italy, Greece and Poland, the influence of these cultures is evident in Australian cuisine too.
The large influx of Asian migrants has also left its mark on Australian cuisine, with many Australian chefs incorporating Asian influences in nominally Western dishes.
The various Aboriginal tribes have their own distinctive cuisines, though due to the fact that they make extensive use of exotic ingredients, these have for the most part not become a part of mainstream Australian cuisine.
Places to eat BYO - Bring Your Own BYO stands for Bring Your Own alcohol.
In many of the urban communities of Australia you will find small low-cost restaurants that are not licensed to serve but allow diners to bring their own bottle of wine purchased elsewhere.
This is frequently much cheaper than ordering a bottle of wine in a restaurant.
Beer can be taken to some BYO restaurants, others allow only wine.
BYO is not usually permitted in restaurants that are licensed to sell alcohol.
There is no shortage of places to eat out in the cities and towns.
Traditionally served only at lunchtime in the lounge.
Today most pubs provide lunch and dinner and many have a separate bistro or restaurant.
Steak, chicken parmigiana and nachos are common.
They are most common in the states of Queensland and New South Wales.
Most allow visitors, and sometimes offer good value meals.
A membership fee is often required.
Not unusual for them to close after 3PM.
Burger King is rebranded here as Hungry Jack's.
Red Rooster is an Australian chain, offering barbecued chicken and other mostly chicken-based items.
Electric BBQ facilities are often available.
Contrary to the stereotype, Australians rarely "Throw a shrimp on the barbie" also, in Australia a shrimp is more commonly referred to as a prawn.
Steaks, chops, sausages, chicken fillets, fish, and kebabs are popularly barbecued.
Typically only open for lunch, though an exception is Penfolds' Magill Estate Restaurant in Adelaide, which only opens for dinner.
Outdoor barbecues at Jackadder Lake, Woodlands, Western Australia.
Similar facilities can be found in many parks across Australia.
Kangaroo fillet at a restaurant in Sydney It may come as a disappointment that native foods are not actually available that much in Australian restaurants, nor consumed by Australians much themselves.
It is available in supermarkets and in some of the remoter parts of the country.
Traditional Aboriginal diets can include endangered species, the consumption of which is strictly restricted to specific communities and unlikely to be available to you.
Barbecue it until medium rare, but best not to overcook as it may become quite tough.
It tastes much like beef.
It occasionally makes it onto the menu in restaurants, mostly in tourist areas.
Kangaroos are crown casino perth wiki, do far less damage to the sensitive Australian environment than hoofed animals, and produce far fewer carbon emissions as well.
Kangaroo is a great environmental statement to make whilst barbecuing.
At Rockhampton, the beef capital of Australia, you can see the ancient reptile on a farm while munching on a croc burger.
Emu is low in fat and available in speciality butchers.
Try the Coat of Arms in a pie in or on a pizza in.
Macadamia nuts are the only native plant to Australia that is grown for food commercially.
Some of the other bush foods can be an acquired taste, though native seasonings are certainly worth trying, and are increasingly being featured in Australian fine dining restaurants.
Bush tucker ice cream can sometimes be found at farmers' markets and outdoor festivals.
Beyond cuisine A pavlova garnished with cream and raspberries Australia has a good deal of British inspired food that is not well known internationally.
Definitely worth a try.
Vegemite, a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast.
If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time.
It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade.
If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well.
It tastes similar to Marmite in the UK or Cenovis in Switzerland.
Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers.
The Tim-Tam is a chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate.
You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store.
Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre.
This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee.
The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe.
Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving.
Tim-Tams are sold in packs of 11, so be sure to agree on the sharing arrangements before buying a packet with your travel partner, or onward travel arrangements may be disrupted.
During summer Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer and eaten ice cold.
The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut.
It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1901.
The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate.
Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets.
The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit.
Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue.
Often the source of dispute with over the original source of the recipe.
ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup.
They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war I soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal.
They are available from bakeries, cafes and supermarkets, and are popular in the lead up to ANZAC day 25 April.
Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen.
It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire.
It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours.
Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland.
A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll.
Despite the name, it contains no chicken.
Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings.
Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches.
Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips.
The Australian Meat Pie is considered to be the national dish by many.
A variation is the pie floater from Adelaide which is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup.
Common types of fish used in Australia include flake various types of small sharkflathead, barramundi and King George whiting.
Unlike in the UK, fish and chips is typically served with ketchup and tartar sauce in Australia.
British and Irish style pubs are common throughout populated areas of Australia, although they feature Australian staples such as chicken parmas, schnitzels and pasta.
Many Chinese restaurants still cater to takeaway addicts today, mostly of the Australianised Chinese variety, but major cities have small "Chinatowns" or suburbs with a large number of ethnic Chinese residents, that click to see more excellent restaurants serving authentic Chinese food.
Cantonese Dim Sum is available in dedicated restaurants in most large shopping malls.
Sydney in particular is known as one of the best destinations for Thai food in the world.
Restaurants either serve Italian food that has been adapted to suit Australian tastes, or authentic regional Italian food, with the latter tending to be pricier and in more upmarket surrounds.
Head to Lygon street in Melbourne or Leichhardt in Sydney if you're a fan.
A Manoosh is a tasty pizza variation that is somewhat more healthy as well.
It consists of halal-certified doner kebab meat originating from Turkey and chips, covered by any of a wide variety of sauces and often cheese.
Typically served in styrofoam containers as a takeaway dish.
They are often operated by Koreans, whose own cuisine is also well represented in the major cities.
The schnitzel is a German dish that has been Australianised and is widely available in pubs and cafes throughout the country, though unlike German schnitzels, which are usually made of pork, Australian schnitzels are usually made of chicken or beef.
A good selection of German or German-inspired sausages is also available at many butchers.
Modern Australian Modern Australian is a recently developed cuisine that is often seen in establishments, analogous to Modern American cuisine in the United States.
This cuisine mixes cooking styles and flavours from different parts of Europe and Asia, paying homage to the diverse origins of Australia's population, and often incorporates native Australian flavours from the bush as well.
Vegetarian Eating vegetarian is available in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes.
Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section.
Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility.
In large cities and in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast, you will find vegetarian and vegan restaurants.
The market town of or the seaside towns of are a vegetarian's paradise.
In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered-for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables.
Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a lot of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.
A popular breakfast option and unfairly associated with free spending millennials.
Religious diets People observing kosher or halal will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles.
Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner.
Fast food chains often offer Halal certified meals in areas with high Muslim populations in Western Sydney and Melbourne.
Allergies Australian restaurants generally provide options for people with common allergies such as nuts and seafood.
Ask the waitstaff if in doubt.
The gluten free diet fad has spread to Australia, and there is no shortage of gluten free products in supermarkets, bakeries and restaurants, albeit often at higher price than the buffet palm casino versions of those products.
Markets All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday.
These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls.
Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their boot trunk.
The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce.
The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season.
In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.
See the destination guides for details.
Beer Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture.
Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find.
Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: Coopers and West End in South Australia, Carlton and VB in Victoria, Tooheys in NSW, XXXX pronounced "fourex" in Queensland, Boags and Cascade in Tasmania, and Swan in Western Australia.
There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out.
A range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub.
The XXXX Brewery in Brisbane Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories.
It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer.
Low calorie beer is sold as low carb.
Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat.
The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: a schooner is 425mL everywhere except South Australia, where it's only 285mL, a size that's known elsewhere as a middy or pot, except in Darwin where it's a handle, but in Adelaide a "pot" means a 570mL full pint, and a pint means what a schooner does elsewhere, and.
The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.
Bottle naming is a little easier: the standard sizes across Australia are the 375 ml stubby and the 750mL long neck, or tallie.
Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab, box, carton, or a case.
Wine Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world.
There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers.
The areas of the near Adelaidenear Sydneynear Melbourne and near Perth are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and also have a large variety.
You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia.
Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations.
Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag.
The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price.
However, it is probably wise thanks blue lake casino live scan join avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container.
Wines at the cellar door are almost invariably sold at around 20% premium to the same wine in the shops in the local town.
If you still prefer overseas wines, the region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.
Spirits Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum.
It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass-produced in and available everywhere.
You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough and more are popping up all the time.
The tiny Sullivan's Cove distillery in Tasmania made waves in 2014 when one of their whiskies was named the World's Best Single Malt, kicking off a mini-boom in Australian whisky, and they repeated the feat in 2018 and 2019.
Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers.
Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.
Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants.
Legal aspects The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years.
It is illegal either to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age or to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age.
The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under 25.
It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under 18.
Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.
Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children.
Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play.
In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach.
Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.
These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem.
However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.
Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: pubs, clubs and many restaurants.
You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops, which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol.
In some states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets.
In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity.
Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; unless you're in the middle of Sydney or Melbourne, so if you're planning on a party at home; it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at 00:30 with no opportunity to buy more.
Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or 24-hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia.
Public drunkenness varies in acceptability.
You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day.
Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance.
You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged.
Driving while affected by alcohol is stigmatized, policed by random breath-testing police patrols in Australia, and inherently dangerous.
Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of licence.
The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0.
Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs.
The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans.
Random breath-testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after.
A shout The Birdsville Hotel in far western Queensland Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world.
It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for source you are drinking with.
Similarly this will likely be done to you when someone else joins the group.
This is called a shout, and incurs an obligation that you will generally return the favour in a following round, and that also you will generally maintain the same drinking pace as your associates in the round throughout the evening.
If someone in the same round as you has an empty glass, who is ahead of you in drinks bought, you should declare that it is your shout, and make your way to the bar.
If someone offers to buy you a drink, but does not offer to buy for the person who already has bought you a drink, you should say you are already in a shout, and decline.
If they buy you and the people in your round a drink, they have joined the shout.
Its generally not polite to switch between shouts during an evening.
It you are in a large shout, and you decline a drink, you still have to buy a drink for the round when it comes to your turn.
You are well advised if you to skip a round, to do so on your shout.
It is generally poorly received to buy a round, and then to refuse a drink when one is purchased for you.
Often the drink will just be bought for you without even asking.
Don't be surprised if someone who bought you a drink earlier in the night, later says that it is your shout.
Not joining a shout can be awkward in some groups.
The best way is to say you are driving, and you will buy your own drinks.
This is also an acceptable way to drop out after one round, when the score is even.
Non-alcoholic Milo is a malt and chocolate drink now made by Nestlé that was invented in Australia, and has since become immensely popular in parts of.
It can be found in any Australian supermarket.
Main article: Australia is a popular destination for University students, especially fromand.
Australia offers world class universities in an English speaking environment, along with potential opportunities to actually gain resident and work visas on a path to citizenship.
If you are intending to study in Australia, you will need to be on a visa class that allows this.
Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa.
For very short term or part-time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy.
Australia also happens to be a great place to get Barista certification, with graduates being maybe able to command higher wages in coffee shops back in their home countries.
Such courses can usually be conducted on a standard tourist visa.
Camping by the Yarrangobilly River, NSW Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations.
As with everything else in Australia it tends to be on the expensive side by international standards.
Hotels When is a hotel not a hotel?
In Australian English, a hotel can also refer to what most of the rest of the world would call a pub.
While country hotels pubs tend to have accommodation on site, most city hotels do not.
A country hotel that does not have a public bar is typically called a motel.
All state capitals have a number of 4 or 5 star standard hotels, often with upmarket restaurants, bars, room-service, and other premium hospitality services.
Other 2 or 3 star hotels are scattered around the inner-cities and inner suburbs.
Best to check local guides and reviews to know what you are in for.
Most hotels offer internet connectivity, occasionally for an inflated fee.
Most hotels distinct from the country pubs known as hotels have private bathroom facilities.
It isn't unknown for all options to run out during major events in cities such as Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide.
Pubs Bendigo's Shamrock Hotel Most pubs in Australia offer some form of accommodation.
It can vary from very basic continue reading rooms, to newly renovated boutique accommodation.
The price is usually a good reflection of what you are in for.
It is still quite unusual to have a private bathroom, even in the nicer pubs.
Outside of the major centres, the pub is called a Hotel.
A motel won't have a public bar.
In very small towns local pubs offer the only accommodation available to travellers.
Accommodation in these pubs tends to be budget-style with shared bathrooms but private rooms.
Pub accommodation is even available in the centre ofmaking getting back to your room after a beer a simple endeavour.
If you travel as a single, and want a private room, pubs usually have single rooms at a discount over a double room.
Most motels will charge the same price for one or two people sharing a room.
Motels Typically, motel-style accommodation will have a private room with a bed or number of beds, and a private shower and toilet.
Many motels have family rooms, that will usually have a double bed and two single beds in the one room.
Usually the cost is the same for one or two adults, with any extra people charged an additional fee.
During quiet times its not unusual for motels to offer standby discounts.
Most motels will serve a cooked or continental breakfast to your room in the morning, for an additional charge.
Some may have a restaurant or serve an evening meal.
Some may have a toaster in the room and kettles are widely provided.
Facilities usually include a fully equipped kitchen with adequate refrigeration and food storage areas.
Most hostels also have living room areas equipped with couches, dining tables, and televisions.
There are several backpacker hostel chains in Australia.
If you are staying many nights in the same brand of hostel, consider their discount cards, which usually offer a loyalty bonus on accommodation, and other attraction and tour discounts negotiated by the chain.
Holiday parks Holiday parks are an Australian holiday institution and a great way to stay if you have your own wheels.
These are basically an upgraded version of caravan parks, but as the new marketing indicates, they now cater to regular travellers as well.
Regardless of where you stay, the price includes access to communal facilities including BBQs, showers, kitchens, self-service laundries, pools, tennis courts and jumping pillows.
The largest park chains covering the are andbut there are also plenty of independent options.
Camping Camping is a popular pastime.
In addition to camping atnational parks often provide cheap or free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient.
Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers.
Paid camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer.
In Australia it is common to be within an hour's drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities.
Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners.
You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed.
Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this.
Generally the closer you are to civilisation or a tourist area, the greater the chance of being hassled by the authorities.
Camping in state forests is often preferable to national parks if you're after a camping experience over sightseeing, as collecting of your own fire wood is allowed sometimes felling of trees is permissible dependent on the area and camping is not restricted to camp sites.
State forests are generally free to stay in, although you will need to check locally if public access is allowed.
Farm stay Much as the name suggests, this usually involves a cabin or homestead accommodation on a working property.
Suited for a stay of two or more days, this accommodation usually allows you to get a little involved in the running of the farm if you wish.
It is common for dinner to be provided in the homestead, and a breakfast pack to be provided to your cabin.
Holiday home Holiday homes are homes rented by their owners, often using local real estate agents or specialised web sites.
Sometimes located in prime positions, but also sometimes in the residential sections of cities and towns.
Minimum rental periods of at least 2 days usually apply, rising to a week during periods when they are busy.
At a minimum will have bedrooms, a lounge, bathroom.
The Henty Central Hotel in the New South Wales town of Henty provides bed and breakfast accommodation.
Many country towns have similar hotels.
Bed and Breakfasts tend to be a premium form of accommodation in Australia, often focused on weekend accommodation for couples.
They certainly don't offer the discount form of accommodation they do in part of theand the local motel will usually be cheaper.
Sometimes extra rooms in a person's home, but often a purpose built robbery freeport casino boat />You should expect a cosy, well kept room, a common area, and a cooked breakfast.
Substantial discounts often apply for mid-week stays at bed and breakfasts.
Resorts There are many true resorts around Australia.
Many have lagoon pools, tennis, golf, kids clubs, and other arranged activities.
The island of the have a choice of resorts, some occupying entire islands.
Serviced apartments Serviced apartments are a very popular form of accommodation in Australia, with all capital and most regional cities having multiple such hotels.
These often include hotels located in prime positions in the centre of town.
Guests are typically able to stay for as little as one night, and discounts are often available for bookings of a week and over.
Rooms tend to be larger than in standard hotels, and amenities typically include a kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms.
Apartment hotels generally don't offer breakfast or have a restaurant, but there are usually cafes located nearby often next door which cater to guests.
Houseboats Houseboats are available to rent on some scenic rural rivers, and provide an excellent opportunity to spend time in the wilderness.
These usually have kitchens in them so you can bring your own food to cook.
Station wagons and vans In most parts of Australia it is illegal to sleep in your vehicle but it is possible to get around this by simply rigging up curtains all around the windows so no one can see in from the outside.
Add a mattress, pillow, portable gas cooker, cookware and a 20 L water container and you are off.
But if you are strategic in where you stay you probably won't get caught.
Just be sensible and don't disturb the locals.
Also, be aware of parking restrictions in certain parts of the cities and town, although overnight parking restrictions are rare.
All cities and towns in Australia have free public toilets.
Many parks, and most beaches have free electric barbecues as well.
Popular beaches have fresh water showers to wash the salt water off after you swim, so for those on a tight budget or for those that just love waking up at the beach simply wash in the ocean please do not pollute the ocean or waterways by using detergents or soaps and rinse off at the showers.
Almost all taps in Australia are drinking water, the ones that aren't will be marked.
Some of the best experiences you may have in Australia will be by taking that road on the map that looks like it heads to a beach, creek, waterfall or mountain and following it.
You may just find paradise and not another soul in sight.
And lucky you, you've got a bed, food and water right there with you.
Travelling in a small group lowers the fuel bill per head, as this will likely be your biggest expense.
Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa.
It is illegal for foreigners to undertake paid work in Australia on a tourist visa.
Be aware that any form of compensation for services performed, monetary or otherwise e.
Volunteer work is allowed provided it is incidental to the trip i.
Foreigners in Australia on a student visa are allowed to work for up to 20 hours a week during term time, and full-time during the school holidays.
Working illegally in Australia runs a very real risk of arrest, imprisonment, deportation and being permanently banned from re-entering Australia.
All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens are not allowed to can closest casino to palm springs you Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.
Payment and taxes Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts and therefore you should open a bank account as soon as possible.
Some banks allow you to open account from abroad, for example Commonwealth Bank and HSBC.
You should also apply for a as soon as possible.
You can apply on-line for free at thethough you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices.
You can start working without one, but you are advised to get one as soon as possible as your employer would have to withhold tax from your salary at the highest rate should you not provide one.
Register your TFN with your bank as soon as possible, otherwise any interest you accrue will be taxed at the highest rate.
The Australian financial year runs from 1st July to 30th June, and tax returns for each financial year are due on 30th October, four months after the accounting period ends.
Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return.
Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation retirement savings fund on your behalf.
Visitors on temporary working visas who are not citizens of Australia or New Zealand should claim this money when they leave Australia.
This payment is known as a Departing Australia Superannuation Payment DASP and you can.
New Zealand citizens can transfer their superannuation money to their New Zealand KiwiSaver account; contact your provider to arrange this.
Working holidaymaker scheme Vineyards in South Australia Australia has a working holidaymaker program for citizens of certain countries between 18 and 30 years of age.
It allows you to stay in Australia for 12 months from the time you first enter.
You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer.
The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs.
If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: office skills to be used for temp work; or hospitality skills to be used for bar or restaurant work.
An alternative is seasonal work like fruit picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities.
Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12-month visa.
You can apply online for abut you must not be in Australia at the time.
On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer.
It's recommended to arrive in Australia with sufficient funds.
The cost of living in Australia is quite high and it may take a few days or weeks to get a job.
Work visas Work visas in Australia change frequently and sometimes without any notice, so always check with your local Australian High Commission, Consulate or Embassy and the.
Your employer will need to demonstrate that they cannot hire anyone with your skills in Australia.
Locally advertised jobs are usually explicit in requiring a valid work visa before your application can be considered.
Getting the visa might take a couple of months from the beginning of the application process and you will need a medical examination by a doctor approved by the immigration officials learn more here it can be granted among other things, you will need a chest x-ray to show that you do not have tuberculosis.
An employer with a good background and efficient immigration lawyers could get your 457 approved within a week.
Your work visa will only be valid for the employer who sponsored you and you will have to leave within 30 days of your employment ending.
Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme RSMS visa subclass 187 is the easiest employer nominated visa to acquire, although you will have to live and work in a designated 'regional' area.
These areas are mostly rural and far removed from the larger cities, although does count in this scheme.
Skilled independent visas subclass 189, 190, 489 may be pursued if you have a valuable specialised skill and don't want to be tied to a specific employer.
There is also a temporary graduate visa subclass 485 which allows graduates of Australian universities to stay on and work in Australia, and is usually valid anywhere from 18 months to 4 years depending on your level of education, and your major.
Your major must be from a list of question grand casino biloxi rv park remarkable occupations for which there is a labour shortage in Australia.
This list is updated every year, and whether or not you qualify for this visa is dependent on the list at the time of your graduation, not at the time you begin your studies.
Immigration You can apply to immigrate as a skilled person or business person, but this process will take longer than receiving a work visa.
You can also apply for permanent residency as the holder of a work or study visa, but your application will not be automatically accepted.
If you have a lot of money, there are several investor's visas available which allow you to live in Australia with a view of obtaining permanent residency.
After four years of legal residency which must include one year as a permanent resident, you are eligible to apply for Australian citizenship.
Volunteering There are several volunteer opportunities in Australia.
Unless you are actively trying to insult someone, a traveller is unlikely to insult or cause offence to an Australian through any kind of cultural ignorance.
Australian modes of address tend towards the familiar.
It is acceptable and normal to use first names learn more here all situations, even to people many years your senior.
Many Australians are fond of using and giving nicknames more info even to recent acquaintances.
It is likely being called such a name is an indication that you are considered a friend and as such it would be rare they are being condescending.
It is generally acceptable to wear revealing clothing in Australia.
Bikinis and swimming attire are okay on the beach, and usually at the kiosk across the road from the beach.
It is normal to wear at least a shirt and footwear before venturing any further.
Most beaches are effectively top optional topless while sunbathing.
Just about all women wear a top while walking around or in the water.
There are some clothing optional nude beaches, usually a little further removed from residential areas.
Thong bikinis more commonly called g-string bikinis in Australia as thongs refer to flip-flop footwear are fine on all beaches and some outdoor pools for women and men, although they are not as common as conventional beachwear.
Some outdoor pools have a "top required" policy for women.
Cover up a little more when visiting places of worship such as churches.
In warm conditions casual "t-shirt casino marysville ca shorts" style clothing predominates except in formal situations.
Business attire, however, is considered to be long sleeved shirt, tie, and long trousers for men, even in the hottest weather.
Using may be viewed as an attempt to mock, rather than to communicate.
If you pull it off well, you might raise a smile.
Australians are often self-deprecating; however, it is rude to ever agree with a self-deprecating remark.
Boasting about achievements is rarely received well.
Social classes do not feature as prominently in Australia as they do in many other countries, and you will notice that tradespeople and manual labourers are very well paid and accorded a lot more respect in Australia than elsewhere.
Be careful not to imply that you are looking down on people whose jobs may be considered menial by the standards of other countries.
Service workers, including hotel staff, waiters, cleaners, taxi drivers and shop employees, expect that customers will treat them as equals.
Most Australians are happy to help out a lost traveller with directions, however many urban dwellers will assume that someone asking "excuse me", is asking for money, and may brush past.
Looking lost, holding a map, looking like a backpacker or getting to the point quickly helps.
Indigenous Australians Uluru likely arrived in the Australian landmass 50,000 years ago and number over half a million people today.
They have faced significant discrimination over the years since European settlement took their traditional lands, and sensitivity should be given at all times.
Aboriginal people actually come from many different 'nations' with distinctive cultures and identities that spoke up to 250 different languages before European settlement.
Many areas of Aboriginal land are free to enter.
Some areas carry a request from the Aboriginal people not to enter, and you may choose yourself whether or not to honour or respect that request.
Uluru holds great spiritual significance to the Anangu.
The Anangu feel themselves responsible if someone is killed or injured on their land as has happened many times during the climbso climbing the rock is illegal.
Some Aboriginal land requires permission or a permit, and some areas are protected and illegal to enter.
You should check before making plans to travel off the beaten track.
Permits are usually just a formality for areas which regularly see visitors, or if you have some other business in the area como la de casino are travelling through.
Often they are just an agreement to respect the land you are travelling on as Aboriginal land.
Some Aboriginal Land Councils make them available online.
If you need to refer to race, the politically correct term is Indigenous Australians.
Aboriginal people is usually okay and referring to sacred sites and land as Aboriginal sites, or Aboriginal land is okay too.
Avoid using Aborigine or Aboriginal as a noun to describe a person, as some people see negative connotations in these words.
The contraction "Abo" is deeply offensive and should never be used.
The word Native is also offensive.
Though Aboriginal custom varies, it is best to avoid the possibility of offence.
Religion Contemporary Australian society is rather secular, and only a minority of Australians go to church regularly.
Most Australians are tolerant towards people of all faiths, and people wearing religious attires such as hijabs, kippahs or crucifixes will in general not face harassment.
Attempting to proselytise or inconveniencing others with your religion, however, will more often than not result in a negative response.
Emergencies The number called 'triple zero' or 'triple oh' can be dialled from any telephone in Australia free of charge.
This number will connect you with the police, fire brigade, coastguard or ambulance service after you tell the emergency operator which service you need.
If you want to contact these services but the situation is not an emergency, don't call 000: you can call the police assistance line on.
This includes requesting a call out for noise complaints.
Poisons information advice, which can also advise on snake, spider and insect bites, is available on.
Information on locating the nearest medical services can be obtained by calling except for Tasmania.
If you require assistance during a flood, storm, cyclone, tsunami, earthquake or other natural disaster you can contact the State Emergency Service in each state except for Northern Territory on.
You will be connected with your local unit and help can be organised from there.
If the emergency is life-threatening, call 000 instead.
You can dial 000 from all mobile phones.
Mobile phones sold in Australia recognise it as the emergency number and will use any available network to place the call.
However, if you have a phone obtained outside Australia, using the universal emergency number is a better idea.
Using 112 will use any available network, will work even if your phone is not roaming, and will work even if the phone does not have a SIM.
Hearing or speech impaired people with TTY equipment can dial.
Those with Internet connectivity can use the.
top vacation spots with casinos from fixed line landline phones may be traced to assist the emergency services to reach you.
The emergency services have limited ability to trace the origin of emergency calls from mobile phones, especially outside of urban areas, so be sure to calmly and clearly provide details of your location.
Because of the number sequence for emergency calls, around 60% of calls to the emergency numbers are made in error.
Nobody will likely respond to your call unless you can effectively communicate to the operator that you need assistance.
If you are in need of assistance, but cannot speak, you will be diverted to an IVR and asked to press 55 to confirm that you are in need of assistance and have not called by accident.
Your call will then be connected to the police.
Except for 112 from a mobile, Emergency numbers from other countries for example, '911' do not work in Australia.
Driving Keep a sense of perspective.
Tourists are far more likely to be killed or injured as pedestrians, drivers or passengers on Australian roads than all the other causes of death and injury combined.
Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is prohibited.
Most states use a prescribed standard of alcohol in the blood to determine whether driving is criminal. crown casino perth wiki crown casino perth wiki crown casino perth wiki crown casino perth wiki crown casino perth wiki crown casino perth wiki

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