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Legalizing casino gambling helped revive Nevada 80 years ago | Las Vegas Review-Journal How would legalizing gambling help the economy


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How would legalizing gambling help the economycasinobonus

how would legalizing gambling help the economy Chapter 6 The Economic and Social Effects of Casinos Assessing the effects of casinos on society is complicated because many factors have to be considered.
Most relate to economics, but some address quality of life and moral issues.
Proponents of casino gambling consider it part of the leisure and entertainment sector �like amusement parks or movie theaters.
In a casino, participants exchange their money for a good time.
Those who support casino gambling generally do not see it are the d casino floor plan suggest a moral issue.
Opponents are less unified in their opinions.
Some disapprove of gambling on religious grounds, because it contradicts moral principles of thrift, hard work, and sober living.
Others are wary of an industry that was associated with mobsters, swindlers, and corrupt politicians throughout much of its history in this country.
Still others point out that casinos provide a place for those who are prone to problem gambling to act on those urges.
Easy accessibility to casinos, they suggest, encourages some people to gamble who otherwise would not and should not.
Outlawing casinos is one way to protect people from their own bad judgment.
Local residents and politicians are often opposed to casinos because they fear increased traffic and crime and may want to protect their community's image.
Also, many state governments are running lotteries and do not want competition from casinos for their residents' gambling dollars.
Elected officials and civic leaders had an even more positive view of casinos in their communities.
Some 63% praised casinos as helping other businesses, and 79% touted casinos as being responsible corporate citizens.
Native American tribes that encounter opposition to their casino plans attribute opposition to the same issues faced by corporate casinos, although some also see racism as a factor.
All adults Casino nearby Casino not nearby Been to casino?
Taylor and Joseph P.
Kalt find in The American Indians on Reservations: A Databook of Socioeconomic Change between the 1990 and 2000 Censuses 2005 that income increased by 35% between 1990 and 2000 on non-Navajo gaming reservations, whereas income only grew by 14% on nongaming, non-Navajo reservations.
Navajo do not have casinos, and the Navajo reservation has more than ten times the membership of any other Native American tribe.
Most tribal lands are located in areas of the country that have limited natural resources and industry, so tribal casinos often bring much needed wealth to the tribes and their neighbors.
For example, in 1995 Del Norte was one of the more indigent counties in : the biggest economic development in the works was a new maximum-security prison in Crescent City.
Then the Tolowan Tribe opened Elk Valley Rancheria and Casino, also in Crescent City.
It quickly became the county's largest employer, providing over five thousand new jobs for tribal and nontribal members of the community by 2004.
Another example is the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe in centralwhich was one of the poorest parishes counties in the state until the tribe built the Paragon Casino and Resort in 1994.
NIGA reports that the casino contributes greatly to the local economy by providing jobs and scholarships.
They believe that, ultimately, casinos will hurt the culture and political stability of the tribes.
In Gambling in the Golden State: 1998 Forward May 2006,Charlene W.
Simmons of the California State Library catalogs all the known positive and negative effects that Native American casinos had had on California communities.
According to Simmons, Native American casinos check this out to slightly higher incidences of bankruptcy and crime, particularly violent crimes such as aggravated assault.
The casinos also strained the local infrastructure.
Most of the casinos brought many people into rural areas with narrow two-lane roads and limited sewage systems.
Even though casinos helped the economies of their immediate communities, they often siphoned money away from adjacent communities: people spent their money at casinos rather than at stores and eating establishments in their own neighborhoods.
In 1996 Congress created the National Gambling Impact Study Commission NGISC to examine the economic and social impacts of legalized gambling.
The commission concluded that a lack of objective research data on gambling issues is a major hurdle in determining the extent of its effects on society.
GAO; now the U.
Government Accountability Office followed up the commission's report with Impact of Gambling: Economic Effects More Measurable than Social Effects April 2000.
The GAO finds some evidence that pathological gambling in areas with casinos results in increased crime and family problems, such as intimate partner violence anddivorce, and homelessness.
However, the GAO suggests that some of these effects might actually be primarily due to other problems that usually accompany pathological gambling, such as alcohol or drug abuse.
Most casinos have been huge successes for their investors, who range from middle-class stockholders in major corporations to billionaires such as 1946 � and Stephen A.
Most tribal casinos have been economically successful as well, bringing unimagined wealth tomany of whom were at the very bottom of the U.
Casinos are also labor-intensive businesses that employ hundreds of thousands of people, who support their families, pay taxes, and buy goods and services �factors that contribute to the economic health of their communities.
The economic effects of casinos on local and state governments are also significant.
Commercial casinos pay billions of dollars every year to government agencies in the form of application fees, regulatory fees, wagering taxes, and admission taxes.
Even though governments incur increased costs for more police, roads, and sewers, casino taxes and fees help fund programs that improve the quality of life in the immediate vicinity or state.
Tribal casinos, though exempt from state and local taxation, pay billions of dollars each year to compensate states and municipalities for regulatory and public-service expenses.
These increases were due to the opening of three new racetrack casinos in Pennsylvania and one in Florida.
Gaming taxes can be a substantial portion of a state's revenue.
Fees and taxes paid by casinos made up about 28% of the state budget.
commit casino jack watch free commit AGA notes in 2005 State of the States that in 2004, 67% of elected officials and civic leaders with casinos in their communities said that the casinos had increased the tax revenue in their communities.
More important, 73% of those community leaders agreed that such tax revenue and casino-development agreements allowed their communities to complete projects that would not have been feasible without the additional revenue.
From Native American Casinos The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act requires that net revenues from tribal gaming be used to fund tribal government operations and programs, to promote tribal economic development, to donate to charitable organizations, and to help fund operations of agencies.
The revenues earned by tribal casinos are not taxable because the casinos are operated by tribal governments: just as the U.
Therefore, tribal casinos generate less tax revenue than commercial casinos.
Tribe members who live on reservations and are employed at tribal enterprises, such as casinos, are not subject to state income taxes.
However, tribe members do pay federalFederal Insurance Contributions Act tax, and Social Security tax on their wages, even if those wages are earned at tribal enterprises.
Wages paid to tribe members living off reservations and to nontribe employees are subject to state income taxes.
That amount included employer and employee Social Security taxes, personal and corporate income taxes, and.
In 2007, 360,818 people were employed in commercial casinos.
Tribal casinos employed 248,000 people in 2006.
Employment was slightly down from the previous year, but up significantly from 1998.
Because they are employed in an entertainment and hospitality industry, gaming workers need excellent communication and customer-service skills, but the financial aspect of casino activities also requires personal integrity and the ability TABLE 6.
A high school diploma or the equivalent is usually preferred for all entry-level jobs.
All casino employees �from managers to dealers to slot repair technicians �must be at least twenty-one years old and have licenses from the appropriate regulatory agency.
Obtaining a license requires a background investigation � applicants can be disqualified from casino employment for a variety of reasons, including links toa felony record, and gambling-related offenses.
Requirements for education, training, and experience are up to individual casinos.
Occupationsingamingare predictedtobe among the fastest growing U.
The growth of the casino employment market has spurred a related increase in vocational and professional training for casino workers.
The University of Nevada,only 1.
go here Tulane University's School of Continuing Studies instudents can choose from several programs lasting between one and four years, including a bachelor's degree in casino resort management.
Students pursuing a degree in hospitality and tourism management at the University of Massachusetts can specialize in casino management.
Central Michigan University, which is located near the Soaring Eagle Casino and Resort operated by the Saginaw Chippewa Tribe, offers a business degree in gaming and entertainment management, including course-work in the protection of casino table games, gaming regulations and control, the mathematics of casino games, and the sociology of gambling.
The Casino Career Institute, which includes a large mock casino, is a division of Atlantic Cape Community College in online games casino free Atlantic City.
When it opened in 1978, it was the first gaming school in the country affiliated with a.
Interview, hire, train, and evaluate new workers and create work schedules and station assignments.
Associates or Bachelor's degree.
Hands-on experience may be substituted for formal education.
Most managers gain experience in other casino jobs, typically as dealers, and have a broad knowledge of casino rules, regulations, procedures, and games.
Circulate among the tables to ensure that all stations and games are attended to each shift.
Interperet the casino's operating rules for patrons.
Plan and organize activities for guests staying at a casino hotels.
Associates or Bachelor's degree.
Hands-on experience may be substituted for formal education.
Most supervisors gain experience in other gaming jobs before moving into supervisory positions.
Verify and handle payoff winnings to patrons, reset slot machines after payoffs, more info slot machines with money, make minor repairs and adjustments to the machines, enforce safety rules and report hazards.
No formal eduation requirements, but completion of technical training helpful.
Most positions are entry-level and provide on-the-job training.
Scan tickets presented by patrons and calculate and distribute winnings.
May operate equipment that randomly selects the numbers, announce numbers selected, pick up tickets from patrons, collect bets, or receive, verify, and record patrons' cash wagers.
High school diploma or GED.
Usually trained on the job.
Determine winners of game, calculate and pay winning bets, and collect losing bets.
May be required to monitor patrons to determine if they are following the rules of the game.
Completion of a training program at a vocational or technical school.
An in-depth knowledge of casino games may be substituted for formal education.
Most casinos require employees to audition for such jobs.
Nevada accounted for 56% of the total.
In addition, racetrack casinos inFlorida, Iowa, Louisiana,, Pennsylvania,and employed 27,258 people during 2007, up 22.
A large proportion of this increase was due to the opening of new racetrack casinos in Florida and Pennsylvania.
Employment at commercial casinos grew rapidly during the 1990s, then stagnated overall between 2000 and 2005, before rising in 2006 and then falling again in 2007.
Despite the 2007 drop, overall employment figures in the casino industry rose from 325,432 in 1998 to 360,818 in 2007, an increase of 11%.
Casino employment rose dramatically in Missouri 11.
Even though employment numbers fell and then rose again between 2000 and 2005, commercial casino wages rose steadily.
About 178,000 of those jobs were at tribal casinos; the other jobs were at ancillary facilities such as restaurants and hotels.
Another ninety thousand jobs were attributed to the indirect effects of tribal casinos �for example, businesses at which casino workers spent their wages.
The NIGA estimates that tribal casinos were indirectly responsible for 315,000 other jobs by purchasing goods and services the industry in marketing gambling businesses around the country.
Capital construction projects e.
In total, the NIGA credits tribal gaming for the employment of 670,000 people during 2006.
The NIGA estimates that in 2006 roughly 25% of tribal casino employees were and 75% were non �.
In some cases the percentages reflected the fact that several tribes had fewer members than employees.
Historically, employees at tribal casinos have not been covered by the federal labor laws that protect workers at please click for source casinos.
As sovereign entities, tribes were considered excluded from Title VII of the and Title I of the of 1990, which prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, physical impairment, and other criteria.
In addition, the exempts government entities from the requirement that they allow employees to form unions.
Tribes, having been ruled to be sovereign governments by both the NLRB and a federal court, operated under their own laws and blocked unions click here they chose to do so.
However, some court cases have held that requirements, theand the do apply to tribal businesses conducted on reservations.
On October 24, 2007, a Decision and Direction of Election was issued to allow the United Auto Workers and the to organize dealers at Foxwoods.
The election was held on November 24, 2007, and most employees voted in favor of the union.
Las Vegas No destination better represents the marriage between gambling and tourism than Las Vegas.
It has had its ups and downs, however.
In the early 1990s the city experienced a steep decline in revenues because of competition from legal gambling on riverboats and tribal casinos in other states.
To counteract this development, the city began a drive to shift its focus from an adult playground to a family destination.
Theme hotels became the big draw.
Adult entertainment along the Strip, such as topless shows, gave way to magic shows, circus events, and carnival how would legalizing gambling help the economy continue reading Las Vegas Convention and How would legalizing gambling help the economy Authority focused advertising on families.
The result was a huge increase in visitors.
However, children distracted their parents from gambling.
Casino owners noticed that the changes did not bring in more gambling revenue, so during the late 1990s the city began to change its image again.
Adult entertainment made a comeback along the Strip: casino-hotels began offering more topless and nude shows, although managers insisted that the nudity presented at their casinos would always be tasteful and artistic.
They were anxious not to offend shareholders of their parent corporations or to alienate women, potential gamblers who make up nearly 60% of Las Vegas visitors.
MGM Grand shut down its family theme park in 2001.
The resurgence of travel it slowed for two years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks may have been another factor.
Las Vegas tourism faces one particular future challenge: It relies heavily on visitors from California, so the advent of tribal gaming in California could create stiff competition.
Atlantic City Tourism in Atlantic City increased following the introduction of casino gambling, but not as fast or as much as many had hoped.
From the 1880s to the 1940s Atlantic City was a major tourist destination, particularly for people living in the Northeast.
Visitors went for the beaches and to walk along the town's boardwalk and piers, which featured carnival-like entertainment.
During the 1950s and 1960s the town fell into economic depression as tourists ventured farther south to beaches in Florida and the Caribbean.
Casino gambling was legalized in 1976 in the hopes that how would legalizing gambling help the economy city would recapture its former glory and rival Las Vegas as a tourist destination.
Progress was slow through the 1980s and early 1990s.
Even though visitors began to go to Atlantic City, they mostly arrived by bus or car and stayed only for a day or two.
In 1984 the state established the Casino Reinvestment Please click for source Authority CRDA to revitalize the city using the funds from a 1.
The economic troubles that had ravaged the town's businesses before gambling was legalized were not easily overcome.
Vacant lots, buildings in disrepair, and housing projects surrounded the casinos.
The overall atmosphere was not particularly appealing to vacationers or convention-goers.
Accordingto Kelly, Atlantic City's thirty million annual visitors actually represented about five million people making multiple trips.
In the late 1990s initiatives by the CRDA and other groups began to pay off.
Hundreds of new homes were built, and commercial businesses were established.
The city's image began to improve, and tourism showed a moderate surge.
Regardless, city and casino officials still see three factors that limit tourism growth in Atlantic City: lack of a major airport, lack of usable land, and cold winters.
Restrictions on smoking on the casino floor, which went into effect in 2008, also worry officials.
Officials must realize that legal gambling will attract an unsavory element that can jeopardize the safety and well-being of the city's residents and the many visitors who come to gamble.
This law, which was designed to safeguard the integrity of the casinos, unintentionally gave organized crime a huge advantage.
The nation was in the midst of the 1929 �1939and building a flashy casino-hotel was expensive.
Few legitimate businessmen had the cash to finance a casino, and banks were reluctant to loan money for what they saw as a poor investment.
Organized crime groups had made fortunes selling bootleg liquor during Prohibition 1920 �1933so they were able to make the capital investments needed to build and operate lavish casino-hotels that attracted visitors.
The marriage between casinos and organized crime in Nevada lasted for decades but was eventually ended by gaming officials and law enforcement.
In the twenty-first century, there is no strong evidence of organized crime activity in the casino industry.
Regulatory agencies keep a watchful eye on casinos to make sure mobsters and their associates do not gain a new foothold.
Casinos keep an equally watchful eye on their patrons and employees.
The casino floor is constantly monitored by a host of security guards and cameras.
Observers watch dealers and patrons at the gaming tables and small casinos on the strip money-counting areas.
Some casinos use high-tech facial recognition programs to scan incoming patrons and quickly identify any known felons or other undesirables.
Even though the industry does not release data on crimes committed by casino employees, analysts believe employee theft and embezzlement account for millions of dollars in losses each year.
Vice crimes, particularly prostitution, as well as weapons crimes also occur.
Commission agents filed 1,767 charges between July 2005 and June 2006.
This total included charges for acts committed at the casinos as well as arrests made for criminal activities that did not occur on casino property.
More than eight hundred 46% cases involved people who obstructed the judicial process in cases involving gambling.
Over three hundred people were charged with violating gambling laws, and 189 people were charged with stealing.
The number of individuals arrested will be lower as some individuals may have multiple charges filed as a result of an individual incident.
These totals also include arrests made attendant to outstanding warrants for criminal activity how would legalizing gambling help the economy did not occur on property of excursion gambling boats.
Grinols and David B.
The researchers collected crime data from all 3,165 counties in the with and without casinos between 1977 and 1996.
Their analysis shows that when a casino first opened in a county, crime changed very little, but slowly rose and then grew steadily in subsequent years.
Even though increased employment and expanded law enforcement might reduce crime initially, over time these effects were overtaken by factors related to casinos.
The possible link between casino gambling and suicide rates has been the subject of much investigation.
For example, in December 1997 David P.
Welty, and Marisa M.
However, five years later Richard McCleary et al.
After comparing the 1990 suicide rates of 148 metropolitan areas in different regions of the country, the researchers found that the presence of casinos could account for only 1% of the regional differences in suicide rates.
Even though increased suicide rates were noted in Atlantic County, New Jersey, and Harrison County, Mississippi, after the advent of gambling, the increases were not considered statistically significant.
However, the history of suicidal thoughts generally preceded problem gambling top casinos in the united by an average of more than ten years.
The researchers conclude that previous mental health disorders, such as clinical depression, put individuals more at risk for both suicide and gambling problems.
In other words, gambling itself does not cause suicide attempts.
Nevada, a state in which gambling is widely practiced, had the third-highest suicide rate in the nation in 2005.
This was nearly twice the national average of 11.
Many mental health experts attribute Nevada's high suicide rate to the huge inflow of new residents who lack a support system of family and friends.
Loneliness and despair are more likely to overwhelm such people than those who have an emotional safety net in place.
In general, suicide rates are higher in the western states than in any other region.
Even Utah, which allows no legal gambling, had the seventeenth-highest suicide rate in 2005, with a rate of fourteen suicides per one hundred thousand population.
Establishing a definitive link between gambling habits and bankruptcy is difficult.
The researchers compare bankruptcy-filing rates during 2000 for 3,109 counties.
They find that the 244 counties in which casinos operated had a bankruptcy rate that was 13.
The AGA disputes the researchers' findings by pointing out that other factors were not considered, such as liberal bankruptcy laws and the ease with which credit cards can be obtained.
Ernest Goss and Edward A.
According to their analysis, those counties actually saw a drop in bankruptcies when the casinos first opened.
The researchers reason that the insurgence of revenue and jobs brought in by the casino likely helped the residents' financial situation.
However, after a casino was open for nine years bankruptcies trended the other way.
Eventually, the bankruptcy rate in a county with a casino was 2.
Most respondents 63% said gamblers themselves should are all m 2 slots the same held most responsible, whereas 15% thought the society at large should take the most responsibility, and 10% put the burden on the owners of gambling facilities.
Self-Exclusion Programs Many casinos operate self-exclusion programs in which people can voluntarily ban themselves from casinos.
A number of states also offer self-exclusion programs for all casinos within their borders.
The casinos are not responsible for barring listed people from the casinos, but anyone listed is to be arrested for trespassing if he or she violates the ban and is discovered in a casino.
However, self-excluded people can enter the casino for employment purposes.
Programs in other states are similar.
If a self-excluded person is discovered in an Illinois casino, his or her chips and tokens are taken away and their value is donated to charity.
The Illinois self-exclusion program runs for a minimum of five years.
Self-exclusion in Michigan is permanent; a person who chooses to be on the Disassociated Persons List is banned for life from casinos.
In New Jersey the Casino Control Commission allows people to voluntarily suspend the money poker credit privileges at all Atlantic City casinos.
The commission maintains a list of those who have joined the program and shares the list with the casinos.
Besides casinos and states, companies that provide the ATMs and cash-advance services for casinos have put self-exclusion programs into place.
For example, Global Payments provides self-exclusion and even self-limit services for people with gambling problems.
Those who put their names on the self-exclusion list are denied money or cash advances, whereas the self-limit program puts a limit on how much money patrons can withdraw in a specified period.
Hotlines and Treatment All the states operate gambling hotlines that either refer callers to other groups for help or provide counseling over the phone.
According to the Mississippi Council on Problem and Compulsive Gambling 2008,55% of the callers to its hotline in 2007 obtained the number through a casino.
Between its inception and the end of 2005 the hotline had received nearly twenty thousand calls.
Missouri also offers free treatment to residents suffering from problem gambling and to their families.
The program is administered by the Department of Mental Health through a network of private mental health providers who have been certified as compulsive-gambling counselors.
Bock notes that in 2006, 407 people received free treatment for gambling addiction through this program.
Iowa' Department of Public Health tracks statistics on clients admitted to its gambling treatment program.
Over half 58% of clients said their primary wagering in the past six months had been done on slot machines.
Another 14% said their primary wagering had been at table games in casinos.
In 2006, 29% how would legalizing gambling help the economy clients were aged twenty-five to thirty-nine, 41% were aged forty to fifty-four, and 22% were aged fifty-five and over.
Clients were overwhelmingly white 93%.
Nearly six out of ten 58% were employed full time, 11% were employed part time, and 11% were looking for work.
These actions include the proper training of employees and the promotion of responsible gambling on company Web sites and through brochures and signs posted at the casinos.
AGA members also agree to provide opportunities for patrons to self-exclude themselves from casino play.
The legal gambling age in all commercial casinos in the United States is twenty-one; in tribal casinos it varies from eighteen to twenty-one.
The AGA indicates in 2003 State of the States that participants were asked in 2002 who they thought bore the most responsibility for addressing the problem of underage gambling in the United States.
When asked to rate the job that the casino gaming industry was doing in preventing underage gambling, a majority 65% rated the casino industry as doing a fairly good or very good job.
The number of minors who were denied entry into the casino.
The number of minors who were physically escorted from the casino premises.
The number of minors who were detected participating in gambling games other than slot machines.
The number of minors who were detected using slot machines.
The number of minors who were taken into custody by a law enforcement agency on the casino premises.
The number of minors who were detected illegally consuming alcohol on the casino premises.
The issue receives particular attention in Nevada because the state's casinos allow escorted children to walk through the casino.
Most states prohibit the passage of minors through the gambling area.
The AGA lists in Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming a number of rules that member casinos should follow to ensure that minors do not gamble in casinos.
For example, they should not display cartoon figures, pictures of underage people, or pictures of collegiate sports athletes on the casino floor.
They are also supposed to stop any minor from loitering on the casino floor, and casino employees are to be trained to deal with minors who attempt to buy alcohol or gamble.
Casinos seem to be successful in following the guidelines.
For example, data compiled by the Michigan Gaming Control Board are shown in Table 6.
A total of 6,338 minors tried to enter the three Detroit casinos in 2007, but were denied entry.
Twenty-four minors were caught on casino premises and escorted out by casino personnel, and twenty-three other minors were taken into custody by law enforcement agencies.
Gambling and politics have always been linked, largely because casinos and other gaming establishments are so heavily regulated, the number of licenses available is often limited, and so much money can be made by people who get those licenses.
Lobbying a common factor in the political system can easily turn into influence peddling and bribery at all levels of government.
Some jurisdictions have become so concerned about the confluence of political pressure and money that they prohibit casino license applicants from making contributions to political candidates.
Mississippi decided to prevent this temptation by setting no limit on the number of casinos that can be built.
State officials claimed their policy would prevent the bribery, extortion, and favoritism that had plagued neighboring Louisiana, where the number of licenses available for riverboat casinos was set at fifteen.
In May 2000 he was convicted of racketeering, extortion, and fraud and sentenced to ten years in prison.
On the federal level, politics and gambling intersect on issues that affect more than one state or Native American tribe.
At that intersection, some people see opportunities to make a lot of money.
just click for source such operator was Jack Abramoff 1958 �a prominent lobbyist in Washington, D.
Many credit Abramoff and his colleagues with securing the defeat of the Gambling Prohibition Act of 1999.
The bill was one of the first anti �Internet gambling bills proposed in Congress.
It was passed in the U.
Senate in 1999 and was put forth in the U.
At the time, Abram-off was working for eLottery, an Internet site that wanted to sell state lottery tickets online.
Their business was threatened by the legislation, so Abramoff sent money to conservative special interest groups to get them to pressure conservative House members to drop the bill because it contained exceptions for and.
Through procedural maneuvering, a two-thirds majority was needed to pass the bill; it failed.
The representatives received so much pressure from their constituents that the House Republican leadership, fearing the party might lose four seats in the 2000 election, decided not to bring the bill up for another vote.
Later in his career, Abramoff and his team defrauded Native American tribes out of millions of dollars.
Typically, he promised that, as their lobbyist, how would legalizing gambling help the economy could secure funding from the government for special projects, such as wider roads or new schools, and that he could keep the government from interfering in their operations, including casinos.
In some instances, Abramoff worked against a tribe behind the scenes and then offered to help it out for huge sums of money.
For example, in 2002 he and his colleagues were instrumental in shutting down the Speaking Rock Casino in .
He then went to the Tigua Tribe, which operated the casino, and claimed that he and his colleagues could get Congress to reopen the casino.
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31.05.2020 in 01:55 Arakazahn:

I apologise, but, in my opinion, you commit an error. Let's discuss. Write to me in PM, we will communicate.

31.05.2020 in 18:14 Moogurn:

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04.06.2020 in 04:48 Domi:

Very valuable phrase

03.06.2020 in 01:06 Kajidal:

Rather valuable phrase

04.06.2020 in 12:26 Akinozilkree:

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01.06.2020 in 01:08 Zulkibar:

I apologise, but, in my opinion, you are not right. Let's discuss. Write to me in PM, we will talk.

Total 8 comments.